There is order to the universe. The universe, and everything in the universe, is evolving. This evolution of nature follows a cyclic pattern. The cycle of the universe is a five stage cycle. All evolution in the universe follows the same five stage cycle.
The degree of awareness and understanding by the human species of the five stages in the cycle of evolution of the universe and of the interaction of time with space is best understood by the concept of the 'dimension', as it is described in Euclidean geometry. Euclidean geometry is an ancient model of nature wherein there are recognized to exist three dimensions. Each dimension is a dimension of space. Space is considered to be infinite, and to be composed of infinitely small points that combine to form infinitely large lines, planes, and 'space'.
Euclidean geometry does not allow for the expression of time within the model of space. Newtonian physics follows the model of Euclidean geometry, wherein time is introduced as completely distinct from space. Einsteinian physics also follows the Euclidean model, wherein time is partially integrated with space.
This book introduces a new model of nature, wherein time is completely integrated with space. It will be demonstrated that human beings, who have five senses and five fingers per hand, have evolved to the awareness of a world of five dimensions. For each of the five dimensions of awareness, space can be understood only within a context of time, such that each dimension is a dimension not of space alone or of time alone, but of 'space-time'. Of space and time in the universe, it will be demonstrated that space is finite, and that time is infinite.
In the first dimension, the universe exists only as 'time'. Time is infinite. Space is finite, and in the first dimension, space does not exist. The Euclidean 'point' well symbolizes the universe at this stage of evolution, where space is infinitely small, and has no existence. The '1'st dimension is symbolized by the number '1'. As well, time is symbolized by the number '1', and by all odd numbers, as only time exists in the first dimension.
In the second dimension, space arises out of time. Out of one, there becomes two, and so the '2'nd dimension is symbolized by the number '2'. As well, space is symbolized by the number '2', and by all even numbers, as space exists as the '2' to the '1' of time. Time and space are also known by other names. Time is known as 'energy', and space is known as 'mass' or 'matter'. Time is that which 'moves', and space is that which is 'still'. Energy is motion, and motion is time. Matter is stillness, and stillness is space. The Euclidean 'ray' well symbolizes the universe at this stage of evolution, as time gives rise to space, but space does not give rise to time. As space is '2', space is finite. As a finite amount of space can pass through a finite amount of time, in the '2'nd dimension time is also now finite.
In the third dimension, there exists 'light'. The word 'light' is used herein to refer not only to visible light, but to all electro-magnetic radiation. Light is the '1' force in the universe, and it is light that enables time and space to interact. The initial spark of light causes the universe to explode, in what is known as the Big Bang. Time and space and light are hurled outward, and begin a stage of expansion. Light can be conceptualized as existing 'between' time and space. The Euclidean 'line' well symbolizes the universe at this dimension of evolution, as light interacts in two directions, with time in one direction and with space in the other direction. There exists time, and space, and light, and so the '3'rd dimension is symbolized by the number '3'. As well, light is symbolized by the number '3', as light also exists in the '3'rd dimension. Light enables time and space to interact by enabling time, which is motion, to be still, and by enabling space, which is still, to be in motion. The interaction of time with space is known as 'space-time'. In the third and fourth dimensions, the dimensions where light exists, the dimensions where space-time exists, matter must always contain energy, and energy must always contain matter; time cannot exist without space, and space cannot exist without time. As '3' is an odd number, the finite again becomes infinite, as light enables a seemingly infinite expansion of space through time.
The fourth dimension is symbolized by '4', an even number. As '4' relates to space, the infinite again becomes finite. The expansion of the universe ceases, and the universe begins to contract. The number '4' symbolizes the number of stages in the cycle of life and death of the universe, of space, and of light. The Euclidean 'plane' well symbolizes the universe at this dimension of evolution, as a plane expands in '4' directions.
The third and fourth dimensions are guided by one fundamental distinction between time and space; time flows in '1' direction, as time is '1', and space flows in '2' directions, as space is '2'. Space, which flows outward from the Big Bang, can also flow in the other direction, back to the origin of the universe. Time, however, can only flow in one direction, forward. Once all of the light in the universe has enabled all of space to flow through all of time, the universe will die.
The fifth dimension is symbolized by '5', an odd number. As '5' relates to time, the finite again becomes infinite. The Euclidean idea of the totality of 'space' well symbolizes the universe at this dimension of evolution, as Euclidean space is composed of infinite four dimensional planes. As with humans giving birth to offspring to perpetuate the cycle of life, the universe evolves to one of the infinite number of other planes of existence, where infinite time, without finite space, is able to perpetuate the cycle of the universe.
It is natural to believe that the universe has order, and that nature has order. Mankind is a natural life form, and so should evolve as the universe evolves, as nature evolves, and as other forms of life evolve. That is, the evolution of mankind should follow the pattern of nature.
Before the origin of language, early humans were much like the other animals, able only to react unconsciously to whatever they could see or otherwise sense at that very moment. Other animals have no conscious mind and cannot be aware of the existence of any thing that is not physically right HERE, at THIS point in space, right NOW, at THIS point in time. Other animals cannot think about some thing that was seen at some other place, at some earlier time, or about what will be for dinner at some time in the future. Other animals are not aware of any dimensions of time or space. Our ancestors slowly, and in discrete stages, developed in ability to think consciously about things that were not physically present in front of them at that very moment. These stages of consciousness are known as 'dimensions'.
Even with the tens, or even hundreds, of thousands of years that humans have had language, mankind only entered the fifth, and most recent, stage of consciousness with the beginning of agriculture, following the end of the last ice age, within the last ten thousand years. Only with the beginning of agriculture have societies had the need or the opportunity to become sufficiently aware of their environment to be able to relate to a fifth dimension of time and space. Agricultural societies need to know the proper time in the year to plant seed, the proper time to harvest, etc. This requires the social organization of a city, with a government, which can produce enough food to enable certain people to devote themselves full time to following the cycles of the objects in the heavens that enable such societies to be aware of time. The word 'ancient' is used herein to refer to those societies that lived in the early period of five dimensional awareness.
Each of the first five numbers is symbolic of each culture's unique understanding of the nature of these fundamental shifts in conscious awareness of the dimensions of time and space. Examination of the symbolism of these numbers provides deep insights into fundamental differences between the English and Chinese languages. The numbers one, two, three, four, and five symbolize awareness of five basic patterns, or dimensions, of time and space. The way in which each of these patterns is symbolized by a language provides insight into an entire pattern of similarities to and differences from other languages. These patterns symbolize awareness that things exist, even if the things are not present in the here and now; awareness that things undergo change, and so are different each time that they become part of a person's here and now; awareness that mankind is an integral component in the interaction of all time and space in the universe; awareness of death; and awareness of the cycle of perpetuation of things in nature.
What is awareness of space and what is awareness of time? Awareness of time is awareness and counting of the cycles of objects in space; the daily and yearly cycles of the sun, and the monthly cycle of the moon. Therefore, awareness of time is awareness of changes in space. As well, changes in space can only be understood as changes over time. Space and time cannot be subdivided in the mind of mankind, and each can be understood only in terms of the other. Light is the force that enables the interaction of time with space. Light is composed of infinite 'waves' of time that flow into space. Light is composed of finite 'particles' of space in motion through time.
The most important use of numbers today is still to measure time and space. It is difficult to imagine what life would be like without awareness of the cycle of the year, let alone without awareness of the cycle of the month. All of mankind's ability to be conscious arises from being able to count these cycles of nature. That is, there are people in each society who establish and maintain calendars, such that everyone knows what 'time' it is. If there were not a social structure that enables a few people to manage that for everyone, what would people do without calendars? It requires too much time and effort for individual people to attempt to count the passing of years, even for people who might know how. Even the most devoted individuals would be hard pressed to attempt to count the passing of months, if there were no help from a society. A society makes five dimensional awareness possible. People need a society to give a social structure to and to keep everyone constantly informed of the current count of the recognized cycles of time. Even now it is uncommon for any two people to have watches or clocks that tell the exact same time. Clocks are usually fast or slow, and each by a different amount. Without a standard that enables people to synchronize their clocks, society would not have been able to advance to the level that it has.
How was mankind able to symbolize his evolving understanding of the dimensions of time and space? Mankind learned to symbolize his awareness on his body, and particularly on his fingers. As mankind became aware of each of the five dimensions of space-time, he also discovered a relationship among his fingers that could uniquely symbolize each of the five distinctions. It was finger symbolism that enabled mankind to become what he is today. Modern people count using a very abstract system of numbers that is based on an evolved understanding of the pattern that is symbolized by the ten fingers. The modern 'decimal' system developed only after mankind had become aware of each of the five dimensions.
Geometry was developed in ancient Greece. The ancient Greeks were well aware of the three cycles of nature in common use to count time; the cycles of the day, the month, and the year. The science of 'Geometry' established a model of space on the basis of the ancient Greek understanding of time.
The geometric concepts of the line, the plane, and three dimensional space were based on observation of finger signs. Instead of five dimensions, all of which the ancient Greeks were aware, the geometric model only recognizes three dimensions, those that are based on the observable cycles of time of the day, the month, and the year. There are two broad distinctions that the mind recognizes between time and space. The ancient Greeks realized that whereas the time flows in only one direction, space flows in two directions. They did not realize that whereas time is infinite, space is finite.
The human mind relates to space in finite terms, based on the finite sizes and shapes that are encountered in daily life. Languages relate not to infinite lines, but to finite line 'segments', not to infinite planes, but to finite 'areas', and not to infinite space, but to finite 'volumes' of space.
Modern English has evolved much over the course of the thousands of years since ancient five dimensional cultures developed. Reference will be made here to the cultures of the ancient Greeks and Romans, which developed at a time nearer to that of the ancient Chinese. English has borrowed much from the Greek and Roman cultures, Rome has borrowed much from Greece, and Greek, Latin, and English all shared a common ancestor and culture as recently as 5,000 years ago, the so-called Indo-European culture. Therefore, what is demonstrated here for the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome applies as well for English.
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